Saturday, March 14, 2020
Covalent or Molecular Compound Properties Covalent orÃ molecular compoundsÃ contain atoms held together by covalent bonds. These bonds form when the atoms share electrons because they have similar electronegativity values. Covalent compounds are a diverse group of molecules, so there are several exceptions to each rule. When looking at a compound and trying to determine whether it is an ionic compound or a covalent compound, its best to examine several properties of the sample.Ã These are properties of covalent compounds. Properties of Covalent Compounds Most covalent compounds have relatively low melting points and boiling points.While the ions in an ionic compound are strongly attracted to each other, covalent bonds create molecules that can separate from each other when a lower amount of energy is added to them. Therefore, molecular compounds usually have low melting and boiling points.Covalent compounds usually have lower enthalpies of fusion and vaporization than ionic compounds.The enthalpy of fusion is the amount of energy needed, at constant pressure, to melt one mole of a solid substance. The enthalpy of vaporization is the amount of energy, at constant pressure, required to vaporize one mole of a liquid. On average, it takes only 1% to 10% as much heat to change the phase of a molecular compound as it does for an ionic compound.Covalent compounds tend to be soft and relatively flexible.This is largely because covalent bonds are relatively flexible and easy to break. The covalent bonds in molecular compounds cause these comp ounds to take form as gasses, liquids,Ã and soft solids. As with many properties, there are exceptions, primarily when molecular compounds assume crystalline forms. Covalent compounds tend to be more flammable than ionic compounds.Many flammable substances contain hydrogen and carbon atoms which can undergo combustion, a reaction that releases energy when the compound reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. Carbon and hydrogen have comparable electronegativies so they are found together in many molecular compounds.When dissolved in water, covalent compounds dont conduct electricity.Ions are needed to conduct electricity in an aqueous solution. Molecular compounds dissolve into molecules rather than dissociate into ions, so they typically do not conduct electricity very well when dissolved in water.Many covalent compounds dont dissolve well in water.There are many exceptions to this rule, just as there are many salts (ionic compounds) that dont dissolve well in water. However, many covalent compounds are polar molecules that do dissolve well in a polar solvent, such as water. Examples of molecular compounds that dissolve well in w ater are sugar and ethanol. Examples of molecular compounds that dont dissolve well in water are oil and polymerized plastic. Note that network solids are compounds containing covalent bonds that violate some of these rules. Diamond, for example, consists of carbon atoms held together by covalent bonds in a crystalline structure. Network solids typically are transparent, hard, good insulators and have high melting points. Learn More Do you need to know more? Learn theÃ difference between an ionic and covalent bond,Ã getÃ examples of covalent compounds, and understand how to predict formulas of compounds containing polyatomic ions.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
In what ways have the gods, ancestors, buddhas & bodhisattvas, nature deities, and ghosts reappeared, and how have these reappearances affected local cultures since the 1980s - Essay Example Folk religions were among the religions that regained popularity and were revived in the post-Mao era. This resurgence was well experienced by 1982. At this time, peasants in Chuansha County in sub-urban Shanghai were flocking to visit fortune tellers. The fortune tellers however were charging a fee for their services but this still did not deter the locals from flocking at their premise. In addition, sorceresses at this particular period were being paid lump sum amounts for curing diseases. The locals had regained so much faith in their traditional religions that they were willing to spend any amount of money to get a hold of the benefits that could be reaped from them. A few years later after the folk religion had been re-introduced in to society, the effects begun to be seen. In 1986, a total of 393 ancestor halls were erected in the market town of Guangdong province. The locals gathered here to worship in masses in these worship halls (Wellens, 2010). These halls were one of the ways in which the ancestors of the Chinese people reappeared in the post-Mao era. The locals also gathered here for worship purposes. More to just being symbolic and worship centers, these halls helped in the popularization of the religions which had become indigenous as a result of the communist era. By the year 1988, the religious practices had been so much embraced that they were being practiced in funerals. This was the case in a village in Sichuan. The locals used to conduct ancestral worship during the holidays. They used to offer sacrifices to appeases and welcome their ancestral spirits. When it came to funerals, the
Monday, February 10, 2020
Open forum intelligence analysis - Essay Example My primary concern is how can I efficiently conduct an ACH by use of the subjective process? How is the Analysis of Competing Hypothesis different from conventional intuitive analysis (Hypotheses 2008)? Richards asserts that there might be no apparent guarantee that any form of analysis might produce accurate answers. Reason being, it all depends on imperfect human judgment on incomplete information. Consequently, this has led to the failure of intelligence systems. Therefore, what are some of the essential factors needed to make the analysis of competing hypothesis more effective (Intelligence Reports 2013)? Hypotheses, Analysis of Competing. "Analysis of Competing Hypotheses." Central Intelligence Agency . July 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/psychology-of-intelligence-analysis/art11.html (accessed October Thursday,
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Of Mice and Men Essay Friendship is significant as despite being rare in the America that the novel describes, friendship is able to exist between George and Lennie, despite under the crushing forced authority exerted by Curley who attempts to intimidate them and mock them. The forced authority also demonstrates that the trust in American society has been broken, similarly to how the depression resulted in people not willing to help other people out. This lack of trust is built upon. Another view which the reader is given is that in general society, there is a tendency for people to be lonely due to the lack of trust. Evidence of this is given by the appearance of CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, who is simply referred to as CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, without a name; there is a split in the equality of genders and she is expected to do simple jobs at home rather than working on a farm. Another side shown to the reader of CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is her loneliness; the theme of loneliness as a contrast to friendship is repeatedly shown, such as when Candy describes her someone who Ã¢â¬Ëgot the eyeÃ¢â¬â¢, and that he Ã¢â¬Ëseen her give Slim the eyeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëgive Carlson the eyeÃ¢â¬â¢. The fact that she is seen to be deliberately staying around George and Lennie, as if to catch their attention suggests the desperation that arose from loneliness, and how far people are willing to go in order to become happy: Ã¢â¬Å"Oh! Ã¢â¬ ¦ You the new fellasÃ¢â¬ ¦? Nobody canÃ¢â¬â¢t blame a person for lookinÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ The theme of loneliness directly contrasts with the theme of friendship in the text, and in this way the importance of friendship is made significant as the friendship between George and Lennie proves to help them escape from the cycle of loneliness and desperation many other people faced at the time, one example being GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s protective nature when he demands that Lennie doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take Ã¢â¬Ëa look at that bitchÃ¢â¬â¢, care which Lennie would not receive if it were not for friendship and care that other people did not receive. Further evidence of the breakdown in the society of America is given when Slim describes the situation as Ã¢â¬Ëmaybe everÃ¢â¬â¢body in the whole damn world is scared of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢, and that it was a rarity for Ã¢â¬Ëguys (to) travel around togetherÃ¢â¬â¢, showing the lack of friendship. Slim eventually gives further evidence for this, saying that it is Ã¢â¬Ëfunny how you anÃ¢â¬â¢ him string along togetherÃ¢â¬â¢, when the people Ã¢â¬Ënever seem to give a damn about nobodyÃ¢â¬â¢, and especially when LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s mental capacity is limited yet George insists on travelling with him: Ã¢â¬Å"It jusÃ¢â¬â¢ seems kinda funny a cuckoo like him and a smart little guy like you travelinÃ¢â¬â¢ togetherÃ¢â¬ , once again emphasising the significance of George and LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s unique friendship. The unfriendliness in society can be seen building up into physical violence, represented by the fight between Curley and Lennie. Curley, who attempts to intimidate Lennie and eventually results in physically attacking him: Ã¢â¬Å"CurleyÃ¢â¬ ¦slashed at LennieÃ¢â¬ ¦blood welled from his noseÃ¢â¬ ¦GeorgeÃ¢â¬ ¦make Ã¢â¬Ëum leave me alone, GeorgeÃ¢â¬ Another contrast between friendship and lack of friendship is made; Lennie is seen to rely on George in order to help him while Curley is left alone to defend for himself, and this is significant as it proves how their friendship will eventually help them in their struggles. George and Lennie share a unique friendship in which they make up for each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s flaws. George is presented as the cleverer of the two, while Lennie is presented as the stronger of the two. Despite the hostile society of depression era America, the friendship between the two characters is significant as it is a rarity for two people to be able to continue a friendship in a harsh time period where people were left to fend for themselves, and often had no family to accompany them. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE John Steinbeck section.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
The horrors of history are passed on from generation to generation in hopes that they will never occur again. People look back on these times and are appalled at how horrendous the times were; yet, in the 1950s, history repeated itself. During this time, Joseph McCarthy, a United States senator from Wisconsin, began accusing people of being communists or communist sympathizers, which is parallel to the Salem witch trials in the late 1690s when innocent people were accused of practicing witchcraft. One of the people McCarthy accused was author and playwright Arthur Miller. To express his outrage at McCarthyÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, miller wrote The Crucible, intentionally drawing similarities between the McCarthy hearings and the Salem witch trials. Miller directly targets McCarthy through the character Abigail Williams in The Crucible. Abigail is portrayed as a sneaky, manipulative girl, not unlike McCarthy. Abigail desperately yearned for John Proctor, begging him to Ã¢â¬Å"give [her] a wordÃ¢â¬ ¦a soft word,Ã¢â¬ but when John pushed her away and told her Ã¢â¬Å"thatÃ¢â¬â¢s done with,Ã¢â¬ Abigail felt that the only way she could have John to herself was to accuse his wife, Elizabeth Proctor, of practicing witchcraft (Miller 1246). Although Abigail had no evidence that the people she accused were practicing witchcraft, the court took her accusations seriously because Abigail had credibility. Abigail accused Tituba of witchery, and when Tituba confessed that she had, in fact, conversed with the devil, it proved to the townspeople that Abigail had told the truth (1262). Similarly, McCarthy accused innocent people of being communists in order to get what he wanted: popularity in the political race for reelection for sena tor of Wisconsin (Ã¢â¬Å"PersecutionÃ¢â¬ 1). McCarthy gaine... ...eb. 27 Dec. 2011. . "McCarthyism: The Aftermath." Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. . Miller, Arthur. The Crucible. Prentice Hall Literature: Timeless Voices, Timeless Themes. Kate Kinsella, et. Al, New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2002. 1233-1334. Print. "Persecution." Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. . "The Red Scare: McCarthyism." Essortment Articles: Free Online Articles on Health, Science, Education & More... Web. 29 Dec. 2011. . "Whittaker Chambers." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29 Dec. 2011. .
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Nicholas Cubillas Jillian Swisher English102- #37 November 12th, 2012 Keeping College Sports In Line Should college athletes really be labeled as Ã¢â¬ËemployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ eligible to be paid by the universities they attend? Or should the laws enacted by the National College Athletic Association (NCAA) remain unchanged leaving players unpaid? Whether or not college athletes should be paid has always been a relevant and controversial topic in the sports world. As a student at a Division 1 sports school and an avid college sports fan this topic interests me.Students need to realize that paying of college athletes would possibly affect the budgets of their schools, possibly taking away academic money towards athletics, and college sports fans also need to realize that the whole integrity of college sports is at stake if athletes begin to get paid. These athletes should realize they are students at their respective universities just as much as they are athletes, and should be satisfied wi th the many benefits they gain from joining Division 1 sports teams.College athletes should remain unpaid because they already reap great benefits from their schools like scholarships, it would be difficult to enact a fair way to pay off all athletes leading to corruption in the system, and some athletic programs do not even generate enough revenue to pay off athletes. College athletes do work hard in their respective sports; there is no doubt about that, which is why some believe they should be a put on a salary.Others believe the schools should not be able to pay students athletes, for a variety of reasons. Those who do side with the debate of paying college athletes believe that playing a sport at a Division 1 school is a full-time job, and college athletes should be compensated for the work they put in. They agree that Division 1 schools as well as the NCAA as a whole generate enough revenue that would allow student athletes to be paid. This money would be able to help students with some basic college expenses (Steve Spurrier Wants Players Paid).The other side of the debate, however, pushes that college athletes reap so many benefits already, the biggest one being a virtually free education, and it would not be fair to pay them. Those advocating for not paying college athletes believe they already get enough compensation from their universities, and they should be content with that. The paying of college athletes, however, brings about many problems like the distribution of money between players, what sports teams should be paid and how much, and the ability of some teams to gather enough revenue to pay their athletes.Both sides bring about their respective arguments, which strongly oppose of the others sideÃ¢â¬â¢s views, which is why the paying of college athletes is an important issue to debate in the sports world. Ever since I was young I have always been an avid sports fan, which is why I have a strong stance on this issue. My father loved college fo otball, and I grew up watching it with him. I also go to a school where most of the athletic programs are Division 1, and these programs are likely to be effected if college athletes began getting paid.Personally, I would hate to watch college athletes become all about the money, which in my opinion, would most likely happen if college athletes were to get paid. Recruits would purely base their choice of school on how much they would be getting paid, not whether they want to play there or if they see themselves doing well with that program. That isnÃ¢â¬â¢t how college athletics should be, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what the NFL is for. Teams with the most revenue would get the best recruits, leading to them becoming powerhouse teams solely because their program generates large revenue than others.As a lifelong college sports fan, I would hate to see what I grew up watching become a money centered, corrupt sport that focuses more on revenue than the actual game itself. College athletes reap man y benefits that do not even compare to other students at the university. They are given scholarships, some to prestigious and expensive schools, and basically are getting a free education. These athletes need to realize they are students just as much as they are athletes, and that they were given the opportunity to perform well in their sports and get a free education as well.These students should in no means be labeled as employees under federal law, and the NCAA agrees with this. The Vice President of Legal Affairs for the NCAA, Donald Remy, addressed the issue in saying, Ã¢â¬Å"The NCAA, in accordance with courts that have addressed the issue, believes that student-athletes are not employees, under the law, and that they should not be treated as employees either by the law or by the schools they attend. Ã¢â¬ (Cooper).On the other side of the debate many student athletes believe they should be getting paid for their contributions beyond just the benefits they obtain like their free education, free apparel, and inside connections. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Should College Athletes Be Paid? Ã¢â¬ former NCAA basketball player Jalen Rose states, Ã¢â¬Å"Collegiate athletes should be paid a stipend of $2,000 per semesterÃ¢â¬ (48). Players of course advocate for them being paid, but are greedy in the fact that they do not realize that the benefits they obtain sum up to a large amount of money and are beneficial to them.These athletes have the opportunity to get a free education, gain national televised attention for their sports talent, possibly attend a bowl game visiting new stadiums and getting apparel for free, as well as being able to build connections in the sports world which they can use when they leave college. These student athletes need to open their eyes and realize that their education is just as important as the sport they play, and with the many benefits given to student athletes, that they can succeed and leave college with a good education allo wing them to get good jobs if they do not make it to the professional level.For these reasons college athletes should be content with and appreciate the free benefits they are getting from their universities. If college athletes were to be paid a salary, where would that money come from? In the survey taken by Schneider he found that, Ã¢â¬Å"If the NCAA were to allow payment, college students' most frequently believed the additional money should come from the athletics department (56%) and additional revenue generating contracts such a shoe and television contractsÃ¢â¬ (Schneider).It is a common misconception, however, by those who think student athletes should get paid that all Division 1 teams generate large revenues. In fact, an article published by NBC sports stated, Ã¢â¬Å"A recent NCAA report done by professor Dan Fulks of Transylvania University in Kentucky shows that only 14 of the 120 FBS schools profited from campus athletics during the 2009 fiscal yearÃ¢â¬ (NCAA rep ort shows many college programs in the red). How will the other 106 teams that did not profit from campus athletics pay off their student athletes?It would not be fair for only profitable teams to pay their players and exclude the teams that lost money for their programs in a given year. As for the distribution amongst Division 1 teams the NCAA states, Ã¢â¬Å"Some of the distribution is earmarked for particular uses, such as funds that directly support academicsÃ¢â¬ (Where Does the Money Go? ). This means that the schools that generate low revenues in their athletic programs would have to use the little money they do have to pay athletes, instead of putting forth academic improvements on the school.Is it really worth it to pay college athletes at the cost of taking away money from universities academic programs? Those who advocate for the paying of student athletes need to realize that from an economic standpoint, it does not make sense to pay these athletes. Another issue arisin g from the paying of college athletes is whether or not an equal amount of payment from program to program is fair for athletes.Andrew Geisler, a columnist, states that the first issue in paying college athletes is that, Ã¢â¬Å"it is inherently unfair to pay certain athletes and members of teams more than othersÃ¢â¬ (Why paying college athletes is a bad idea). This view proposes that if college athletes were to be paid, they would all have to be paid fairly with the same amount of money. But would only the profitable programs like football and basketball pay off their athletes? Or would every Division 1 program at the school, like hockey and soccer, have to pay of their athletes?With this comes another issue, the corruption of the NCAA system that would occur if college athletes were to get paid. Since it would be unfair to pay one team in the same sports Division and not the other, or pay the athletes on a low budget team much less than those on a profitable team, if college ath letes were to get paid it would be based on the schools revenue. This would be unfair for other Division 1 schools because only profitable schools would pick up good recruits, and these athletic programs would be able to pay large sums of money for star players.This would make the NCAA corrupt and all about money, and college sports should not be like that. In SchneiderÃ¢â¬â¢s investigation, Ã¢â¬Å"Examination of the results found that the primary reason advanced by students for supporting payment of athletes was that cheating, in the form of illegal payments, would declineÃ¢â¬ (Schneider). Contrary to this belief, however, allowing payment of student athletes will actually make matters worse and illegal payment will still happen regardless. Those ho believe the paying of college athletes would decrease corruption do not realize that this would allow college coaches to bargain with star recruits about money and it would become a battle of which team puts up the most money. Thes e coaches may even throw in some other benefits on top of the money to make them join the team, and if paying college athletes were legal, it would be easier for these coaches to sneak in other offers for them to join the team. Illegal payment will happen regardless, but if student athletes were to get paid it would be much easier for coaches to sneak under the radar in giving their athletes special benefits.College athletes really need to take a deeper look into all of the aspects before they believe they should be compensated. Not all college programs have the funds to be paying their athletes, and if multiple teams in the Division 1 programs are unable to pay their athletes, than all teams in that Division should be unable as well. College athletes gain a free education through scholarships along with many other benefits that will help them in the future. Paying off these athletes would ruin the game and make the sport all about money.The NCAA should maintain the same rules and c ontinue to not pay athletes, because if they do, college sports will never be the same again. Works Cited Aschoff, Edward. Ã¢â¬Å"Steve Spurrier Wants Players Paid. Ã¢â¬ ESPN. 01 2012: n. page. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. Cooper, Kenneth J. Ã¢â¬Å"Should College Athletes Be Paid To Play?. Ã¢â¬ Diverse: Issues In Higher Education 28. 10 (2011): 12-13. ERIC. Web. 24 Oct. 2012 Geisler, Andrew. Ã¢â¬Å"Why paying college athletes is a bad idea. Ã¢â¬ miamistudent. net. The Miami Student, 20 2011.Web. 11 Nov 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"NCAA report shows many college programs in the red. Ã¢â¬ nbcsports. com. NBC, 25 Aug. 2010. Web. 11 Nov 2012. Rose, Jalen. Ã¢â¬Å"Should College Athletes Be Paid?. Ã¢â¬ Jet 119. 11 (2011): 48. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 11 Nov. 2012. Schneider, R. G. Ã¢â¬Å"Payment Of College Athletes: Student-Athletes' And Administrators' Perceptions. Ã¢â¬ International Sports Journal 4. 2 (2000): 44-55. SPORTDiscus with Full Text. Web. 25 Oct. 2012. Ã¢â¬Å"Where Does the Money Go?. Ã¢â¬ NCAA. org. NCAA, 08 2008. Web. 11 Nov 2012.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The origins of Italian surnames vary. Many are derived from the names of people, places, professions, or nicknames, and most originated in the Middle Ages when the practice largely started. Frequently, the geographical origin of a person can be deduced from his last name, since certain endings are characteristic of certain regions. For example, the Italian last name Ferrero is associated with the Piemonte region, while Bissacco is associated with Friuli-Venezia Giulia. A large number of Italian surnames end in the letter i, due to the medieval Italian habit of identifying families by the name of the ancestors in the plural. Some Italian family names were formed using a modifying suffix, for example: Ã »Ã ello/illo/etto/ino, e.g., Bernardino, BernardelloÃ »Ã one, e.g., MangioneÃ »Ã accio/azzo/asso , e.g., Boccaccio The Italian preposition di is often used to indicate parenthood; many Italian surnames arise from this use: Di Pietro, Di Stefano. Family names with the prefix Di are spread throughout Italy, with the highest frequency in Abruzzo-Molise, Sicily, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, and the Veneto. Family names with the prefix De are typical in Southern Italy and Sardinia; they are also somewhat common with surnames native to Northern Italy. Origins ENDING EXAMPLE ORIGIN asco Binasco, Bagnasco, Comasco, Cevasco, Pegliasco, Pinasco Liguri and Piemontesi (Lower Piemontesi) ago/aghi/ate/ati Airaghi, Arconato, Brambati, Casiraghi, Gessati Lombardi atti/atto/etti/otti/elli/olli Orsatti, Poratti, Giorgetti, Pedrotti, Luciotti, Lucianetti, Rossetti, Belotti, Arrighetti, Bonicatto, Beghelli, Cavatiolli Lombardi azzi/azzo Bottazzi, Bertolazzi, Bottazzi, Fontanazzi, Galeazzi, Zanazzi, Palazzo Emiliani or Lombardi (lower) aro/ari Campari, Ferrari, Campanaro, Campanari, Priari, Monaro, Corgaro Emiliani or Lombardi (Lower) or Veneti di/oldi Boldi, Garibaldi, Gastoldi, Savoldi, Soldi, Uboldi Lombardi (Germanici) ingo/inghi/enghi/engo Ardenghi, Borlenghi, Girardengo, Interlenghi, Polenghi, Martinengo Lombardi or Toscani (Germanici) otti Bartolotti, Belotti, Chelotti, Matteotti, Melotti, Papotti, Turotti, Lotti, Totti Lombardi oni Alessandroni, Borioni, Belloni, Cerioni, Cesaroni, Lucioni, Vecchioni Lombardi or Marchigiani e Bove, Calvanese, Matrone Campani ero/ario Accornero, Barbero, Ferrero, Maspero, Molinero, Sobrero Piemontesi esio Francesio, Genesio, Gorresio, Carchesio Piemontesi or Abruzzesi audi/aldi Gribaudi, Einaudi, Rambaudi Piemontesi ante Adorante, Ferrante, Parlante, Pomante, Violante Abruzzesi ieri Olivieri, Piantieri, Ranieri Abruzzesi, Campani illi (ille) Piccirilli, Spitilli, Verzilli Abruzzesi o Basso, Panariello, Scongliamiglio, Guarracino Campani occhi (cchie) Ciarrocchi, Fabiocchi, Pirocchi Lombardi oli Cavacchioli, Frattaroli, Frondaroli, Vallaroli Abruzzesi ella Pezzella, Montella, Colella Napoletani iello Borriello, Panariello, Ricciardiello, Romaniello, Vitiello Campani edda Deledda, Ledda, Zedda, Faedda Sardi au Biddau, Madau, Rau Sardi as/us Cannas, Piras, Marras, Solinas, Rosas, Campus, Angus, Pintus Sardi is Virdis, Lampis, Bolis, Cortinovis, Pelis, Pellis, Fabris, Carlevaris Sardi, Lombardi (Bergamasca) or Friulani u Cafeddu, Alu, Soru, Porcu, Nieddu, Schirru Sardi or Siciliani aloro (aloru) Andaloro, Favaloro, Orglialoro Siciliani ano Giordano, Catalano, Veneziano, Provenzano, Cusmano, Romano, Formisano Siciliani, Campani ez/es Gonzales, Zingales, Martinez, Martines, Alvarez, Alvares, Perez Siciliani aro (aru) Amaru, Todaro, Caffaro, Cannizzaro, Cavallaro, Finocchiaro, Ferraro Siciliani eri Oliveri, Palmeri, Scuderi, Tuveri, Cambareri Siciliani isi Campisi, Cassisi, Pennisi, Puglisi, Troisi, Ronnisi, Parisi Siciliani oti Sidoti, Foti, Scilipoti Siciliani or Calabresi osi (usi) Alosi, Albertosi, Cangelosi, Nicolosi Sicilian ulla Strazzulla, Zappulla Siciliani audo Grimaudo, Ribaudo, Baudo Siciliani ai/ini Astai, Bottai, Bollai, Casini, Cascini, Lucini, Fornariini, Paolini, Pontini Toscani or Lombardi ucci Bellucci, Bertolucci, Bonucci, Lambertucci, Narducci Toscani or Abruzzesi uoli/aiuoli Acciaiuoli, Casciaiuoli Toscani acco Acco, Bacco, Bazzacco, Bissacco, Cacco, Feltracco, Polacco, Bracco Friulani er Taufer, Pacher, Pichler, Pineider Trentini, Sudtirolesi otto Zanzotto, Bizzotto, Bellotto, Serraiotto Veneti ato Marconato, Donolato, Bellinato, Lucato, Francescato, Porrato, Variato Veneti igo Barbarigo, Brigo, Pasqualigo, Sandrigo Veneti l/n/r/z/ Canal, Lucin, Manin, Furlan, Schiavon, Carrer, Venier, Paniz Venetianan, Trentini or Friulani ussi Bortolussi, Benussi Friulani utti/ut Bonutti, Gregorut, Martinut, Varutti Friulani az Bethaz, Bionaz, Cuneaz, Lucianaz, Marguerettaz, Pasquettaz, Praz, Rosaz Valdostani (pronounced in the French) or Friulani oz Boz, Chabloz, Diemooz, Marcoz, Goz, Savioz, Vuillermoz Valdostani (pronounced in the French) or Friulani ou Fiou Valdostani (pronounced in the French) y Borney Valdostani t Perret Valdostani (pronounced in the French) ra Fichera, Guarnera, Ferrera Siciliani PREFIX EXAMPLE ORIGIN De De Bortoli, De Carli, De Cesare, De Felice, De Lorenzi, De Pasqual, De Maria, Demuru, De Stefani Suditaliani, Sardi, Norditaliani Del Del Ben, Del Grosso, Del Vecchio, Del Porto, Del Pozzo, Del Negro, Del Pasqua, Del Piero Centro Italia and Norditaliani Della Della Bartola, Della Bella, Della Corte, Della Mea, Della Pasqua, Della Torre, Della Valle Norditaliani, Suditaliani, Centro Italia Di Di Battista, Di Giovanni, Di Fluri, Di Stefano, Di Luch, Di Centa, Di Bert, Di Lazzaro, Di Pietro, Di Lorenzo Abruzzesi-Molisani, Friulani, Siciliani, Veneti La La Barbera, La Ferrera, La Fata, La Russa, La Malfa, La Rosa, La Pira, La Loggia, La Torre Siciliani Lo (Lu) Lo Certo, Lo Cicero, Lo Forte, Lo Giudice, Lo Iacono, Lo Nigro, Lu Piccolo, Lo Presti, Lu Vito Siciliani Li Li Calzi, Li Castri, Li Causi, Li Greci, Li Pira, Li Puma, Li Vigni, Li Voi, Li Volsi, Li Volti Siciliani